TITLE: Vellarón Mask and Costume
TYPE: helmet mask; costume; accessory
GENERAL REGION: Europe
COUNTRY: Spain
SUBREGION: Galicia
ETHNICITY: Iberian
DESCRIPTION: Vellarón Mask and Costume with Zamarra (Whip)
MAKER (MASK): Adelino Martínez (Riós, 1964- )
MAKER (COSTUME): Jaime Pérez Rodríguez (Riós, d.o.b. unknown)
CEREMONY: Entroido (Carnival)
AGE: 2010
MAIN MATERIAL (MASK): cardboard
OTHER MATERIALS (MASK): paper maché; paper; metal wire; synthetic ribbons; polyester beard; adhesive; paint
COSTUME MATERIALS: polyester cloth and ribbons; leather belt; brass bells; brass hardware; synthetic leather leggings
ACCESSORY MATERIALS: wood; paint; leather straps; cotton wadding; burlap; metal hardware

The Entroido (Carnival) of Spain’s Galicia province has a tremendous diversity of celebration styles that vary from town to town. In the region of Riós, the celebration begins with a parade of brightly dressed vellaróns, who travel around towns such as Castrelo de Cima and neighboring villages, requesting food or money for the Carnival feast. They may accompany other characters, such as A Madama, an elegant lady, O Farrangón, a man in old rags, or even costumed dogs.

The vellarón mask and costume are ancient in origin, but they were lost around 1977, only to be recovered in 2007 and restored to use.

This mask and costume were graciously donated to the Museum by the Township of Riós in 2018.

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TITLE: Boteiro
TYPE: helmet mask
GENERAL REGION: Europe
COUNTRY: Spain
SUBREGION: Galicia
ETHNICITY: Iberian
DESCRIPTION: Boteiro Mask with Pantalla
MAKER: Javier Martínez González, Santa Mariña de Froxais, Viana do Bolo (1983- )
CEREMONY: Entroido (Carnival)
AGE: 2008
MAIN MATERIAL: hardwood (mask); iron rods (pantalla)
OTHER MATERIALS: lacquer; red deer antlers; cardboard; dyed paper; leather straps; hardware; foam rubber padding; adhesive; dyed satin ribbons

The Entroido (Carnival) of Spain’s Galicia province has a tremendous diversity of celebration styles that vary from town to town. In the region of Viana do Bolo, the celebration begins with a parade of folións, marching bands playing primarily the bombo drum and other percussion. The folións are surrounded by boteiros, masqueraders with colorful costumes and poles, who charge through the crowd to make way for the musicians and vault high on their poles in a display of athletic skills. Each village around Viana do Bolo contributes a team of musicians and masqueraders, and most villages have their own unique style of mask.

In Santa Mariña de Froxais, whence this mask comes, the boteiros typically wear handmade wooden masks, lacquered but otherwise left their natural color, and a very large superstructure (pantalla) attached to the top of the mask made of heavy iron, covered with cardboard and colorful paper. The masks may weigh as much as 30 pounds (14 kg). The ability to run, jump, and vault while wearing the mask demonstrates the masquerader’s strength and athletic prowess.

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TITLE: Jarramplas Mask
TYPE: helmet mask
GENERAL REGION: Europe
COUNTRY: Spain
SUBREGION: Extremadura
ETHNICITY: Iberian
DESCRIPTION: Jarramplas Mask
MAKER: Marcos Calle Vicente, Piornal (1972- )
CEREMONY: Fiesta de San Sebastián
AGE: 2002
MAIN MATERIAL: fiberglass
OTHER MATERIALS: metal hardware; steel mesh; oil-based paint; horsehair; fiberboard; foam rubber; adhesive

Jarramplas is an annual festival held primarily in the mountain town of Piornal in Extremadura, Spain, during the Festival of St. Sebastian (January 19 & 20). The tradition begins with a man dressed as a devil in heavy armor playing a small drum while running along the town streets. Inhabitants of the town chase him until they corner him, surround him, and continually pelt him with large, heavy turnips. Meanwhile, he continues to play the drum until midnight, being pelted viciously all the while. The Festival ends with a High Mass and an invitation to the celebrated Jarramplas to come to eat migas (a dish made of bread crumbs, pork ribs or sausage, spinach, and seasonings) at the local prefect’s house.

The origins of this ancient are contested. Some believe the Jarramplas represents a cattle thief getting his due but ultimately reforming at the hands of the religious authorities. Others think he represents St. Sebastian himself, who was reputedly shot full of arrows, for which the turnips are symbolic.

Because the turnips are sizable and thrown vigorously, the Jarramplas has always worn an armored costume. Originally, masks were made of wood, but for many years they have been constructed from hard fiberglass and fiberboard, and padded internally with foam rubber. The helmet is physically fitted to the armored suit, composed of iron rods and fiberglass, and covered with multicolored rags. There are usually only one or two dedicated Jarramplas masqueraders during each festival.

This mask was graciously donated to the Museum by the maker, Marcos Calle Vicente, and the Township of Piornal, with special thanks to Ms. Clara Calle.

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TITLE: Careto
TYPE: face mask
GENERAL REGION: Europe
COUNTRY: Portugal
SUBREGION: Bragança
ETHNICITY: Iberian
DESCRIPTION: Careto
MAKER: António Alves (Varges, Bragança, 1949- )
CEREMONY: Entrudo (Carnival)
AGE: 2016
MAIN MATERIAL: plant fiber (escrinho)
OTHER MATERIALS: N/A

In Bragança, Portugal, Carnival (frequently called Entrudo) masks may be composed of a wide variety of materials, most commonly metal, leather, wood, cork, or, as here, escrinho (woven straw). Such masks typically have devilish features, representing the freedom enjoyed by the celebrant that would be considered sinful, or at least socially unacceptable, at other times of the year. Carnival is the Shrovetide season of maximal social freedom prior to the Catholic fasting season of Lent. In Catholic countries such as Portugal, parties, parades, feasting, and cultural events are commonly organized during the Carnival season, primarily on “Fat Sunday” and “Fat Tuesday.”

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TITLE: Careto
TYPE: face mask
GENERAL REGION: Europe
COUNTRY: Portugal
SUBREGION: Bragança
ETHNICITY: Iberian
DESCRIPTION: Careto
MAKER: António Alves (Varges, Bragança, 1949- )
CEREMONY: Entrudo (Carnival)
AGE: 2017
MAIN MATERIAL: cork bark
OTHER MATERIALS: adhesive; lacquer; vegetable fibers

In Bragança, Portugal, Carnival (frequently called Entrudo) masks may be composed of a wide variety of materials, most commonly metal, leather, wood, cork, or escrinho (woven straw). Such masks typically have devilish features, representing the freedom enjoyed by the celebrant that would be considered sinful, or at least socially unacceptable, at other times of the year. Carnival is the Shrovetide season of maximal social freedom prior to the Catholic fasting season of Lent. In Catholic countries such as Portugal, parties, parades, feasting, and cultural events are commonly organized during the Carnival season, primarily on “Fat Sunday” and “Fat Tuesday.”

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TITLE: Careto
TYPE: face mask
GENERAL REGION: Europe
COUNTRY: Portugal
SUBREGION: Lamego
ETHNICITY: Iberian
DESCRIPTION: Careto
MAKER: Albino Neves (Lazarím)
CEREMONY: Entrudo (Carnival)
AGE: 2015
MAIN MATERIAL: alder wood
OTHER MATERIALS: jute rope; elastic straps

The residents of the small town of Lazarím, Portugal, claim that their Carnival is the most authentic in Portugal and dates back to the Celtic invasions from central Europe in the first millennium BCE. The participants begin with a walk from Lamego to Lazarím or a town parade, dressed in costumes and masks made of natural materials such as burlap, wicker, pine boughs, or dried grass. The masks are usually hand-carved of wood and uncolored. They most commonly represent devils, but they may also represent animals, kings, or (in this case) Jesus of Nazareth himself. The parade is accompanied by a band of drums and percussion instruments.

After the parade, a young man and woman designated to carry paper maché effigies of a compadre and comadre assemble the village in the square and read out a list of the embarrassing acts of the villagers during the preceding year, to the amusement of all. The shamed individuals are then redeemed by the symbolic burning of the effigies. The villagers then share a feast of bean and meat stew cooking in a large cauldron in the square.  Masqueraders frequently play pranks throughout Fat Sunday and Fat Tuesday.

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TITLE: Peliqueiro
TYPE: face mask; accessory
GENERAL REGION: Europe
COUNTRY: Spain
SUBREGION: Galicia
ETHNICITY: Iberian
DESCRIPTION: Peliqueiro (Hairdresser) Mask
MAKER: Mask: Francisco “Paco” Diéguez (Matamá, Laza, 1950- ); Painting: Olalla Diéguez Boo (Matamá, Laza, 1980- )
CEREMONY: Entroido (Carnival)
AGE: 2018
MAIN MATERIAL (mask): wood; aluminum sheet
OTHER MATERIALS (mask): leather; oil-based paint; dyed cotton yarn; waxed thread; foam rubber; rabbit pelt; synthetic fur; denim; hardware; horsehair
MATERIALS (whip): wood; leather

The Entroido (Carnival) of Spain’s Galicia province has a tremendous diversity of celebration styles that vary from town to town. In the region of Laza, main characters are very similar to the Cigarrones of the nearby, larger town of Verín. These characters, called Peliqueiros (hairdressers), wear fancy and intricate costumes of velvet jackets, tasseled short pants, laced hose, an embroidered scarf (pañoleta), and a belt with large brass or copper cowbells (chocas). The mask is made of wood, padded with leather and lined with rabbit fur. Attached to the top is a metal screen in the shape of a bishop’s miter (mitra), painted with a totemic animal or scene, decorated with tassels (pondones) and lined in the back with leather, animal fur, and hair from a horse’s tail. Like the Cigarrón, the Peliqueiro carries a leather whip (zamarra) with a long, carved wood handle to lash any member of the crowd who fails to move out of the way of the parade, or sometimes anyone who does not show sufficient respect to the Peliqueiros. Although Entroido in Laza includes crowds of celebrants throwing rags soaked in clay mud (Farropada) at each other, or shaking branches full of stinging ants onto each other during the Morena, the Cigarrón is considered untouchable and must be avoided and treated with respect throughout the Entroido.

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TITLE: Pantalla
TYPE: helmet mask
GENERAL REGION: Europe
COUNTRY: Spain
SUBREGION: Galicia
ETHNICITY: Iberian
DESCRIPTION: Pantalla (Screen) Mask
MAKER: Juan Antioquia (Xinzo de Limia, 1964- )
CEREMONY: Entroido (Carnival)
AGE: 2015
MAIN MATERIAL: paper maché
OTHER MATERIALS: cardboard; felt; foam rubber; acrylic paint; polyester cloth; synthetic fringe; stitching

The Entroido (Carnival) of Spain’s Galicia province has a tremendous diversity of celebration styles that vary from town to town. In Xinzo de Limia, the main Carnival character is the Pantalla (Screen), which refers to the painted screens atop the helmet masks they wear. These screens are decorated with astral motifs or totemic animals. The Pantalla wears a costume consisting of a white shirt, black pants, a red or black cape, a red scarf, and black shoes, with a red belt holding cowbells. The Pantalla also carries two or more inflated, dried cattle bladders attached to strings, which the Pantalla uses to bang together while jumping and grunting to scare strangers and women.

The Pantalla‘s role is to ensure that nobody walks into the town square or surrounding streets without a disguise. Anyone without a disguise is forced to buy the Pantallas a round of wine, if necessary by abduction to the nearest bar.

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TITLE: Boteiro
TYPE: face mask
GENERAL REGION: Europe
COUNTRY: Spain
SUBREGION: Galicia
ETHNICITY: Iberian
DESCRIPTION: Boteiro Mask
MAKER: Modesto García Yañez (Penouta, Viana do Bolo, 1978- )
CEREMONY: Entroido (Carnival)
AGE: 2018
MAIN MATERIAL: hardwood
OTHER MATERIALS: enamel paint

The Entroido (Carnival) of Spain’s Galicia province has a tremendous diversity of celebration styles that vary from town to town. In the region of Viana do Bolo, the celebration begins with a parade of folións, marching bands playing primarily the bombo drum and other percussion. The folións are surrounded by boteiros, masqueraders with colorful costumes and poles, who charge through the crowd to make way for the musicians and vault high on their poles in a display of athletic skills. Each village around Viana do Bolo contributes a team of musicians and masqueraders, and most villages have their own unique style of mask.

In Penouta, whence this mask comes, the boteiros typically wear glossy black masks with ferocious smiles, and a very large superstructure (pantalla) attached to the top of the mask made of heavy iron, covered with cardboard and colorful paper. The masks may weigh as much as 30 pounds (14 kg). The ability to run, jump, and vault while wearing the mask demonstrates the masquerader’s strength and athletic prowess.

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TITLE: Peliqueiro
TYPE: face mask
GENERAL REGION: Europe
COUNTRY: Spain
SUBREGION: Galicia
ETHNICITY: Iberian
DESCRIPTION: Peliqueiro (Hairdresser) Mask
MAKER: Mask: Francisco “Paco” Diéguez (Matamá, Laza, 1950- ); Painting: Olalla Diéguez Boo (Matamá, Laza, 1980- )
CEREMONY: Entroido (Carnival)
AGE: 2008
MAIN MATERIAL: wood; aluminum sheet
OTHER MATERIALS: leather; oil-based paint; dyed cotton yarn; waxed thread; foam rubber; rabbit pelt; synthetic fur; denim; hardware; horsehair

The Entroido (Carnival) of Spain’s Galicia province has a tremendous diversity of celebration styles that vary from town to town. In the region of Laza, main characters are very similar to the Cigarrones of the nearby, larger town of Verín. These characters, called Peliqueiros (hairdressers), wear fancy and intricate costumes of velvet jackets, tasseled short pants, laced hose, an embroidered scarf (pañoleta), and a belt with large brass or copper cowbells (chocas). The mask is made of wood, padded with leather and lined with rabbit fur. Attached to the top is a metal screen in the shape of a bishop’s miter (mitra), painted with a totemic animal or scene, decorated with tassels (pondones) and lined in the back with leather, animal fur, and hair from a horse’s tail. Like the Cigarrón, the Peliqueiro carries a leather whip (zamarra) with a long, carved wood handle to lash any member of the crowd who fails to move out of the way of the parade, or sometimes anyone who does not show sufficient respect to the Peliqueiros. Although Entroido in Laza includes crowds of celebrants throwing rags soaked in clay mud (Farropada) at each other, or shaking branches full of stinging ants onto each other during the Morena, the Cigarrón is considered untouchable and must be avoided and treated with respect throughout the Entroido.

This mask was used by the maker, Paco Diéguez, for nine years in the Carnivals of Matamá and Laza. The malamute on the mitra is a portrait of his dog companion at the time, painted by his daughter.

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