TITLE: Wayang Wong Ravana
TYPE: face mask
GENERAL REGION: Asia
COUNTRY: Indonesia
SUBREGION: Bali
ETHNICITY: Balinese
DESCRIPTION: Ravana Mask
MAKER: Ida Made Sutiarka, Singapadu (1974- )
CEREMONY: Wayang Wong
AGE: 2018
MAIN MATERIAL: pule wood
OTHER MATERIALS: leather; cotton; oil-based paint; gilded silver jewelry; rhinestones; mirrors; gold leaf; string

The Wayang Wong dance drama retells parts of the Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. These epics revolve around the god Rama and his battle with the demon king Ravana, who has abducted Rama’s wife, Sita. In the end, Rama retrieves her with the help of the wily monkey god, Hanuman.  This mask represents the antihero Ravana, whose nature is somewhat ambiguous in Hindu lore. On one hand, he is generally thought to have been a capable king. On the other, his evil deeds doom him to retribution at the hands of Rama and his allies.

For more on Balinese masks, see Judy Slattum, Masks of Bali: Spirits of an Ancient Drama (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1992).

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TITLE: Lhakarpo Mask
TYPE: face mask
GENERAL REGION: Asia
COUNTRY: Bhutan
SUBREGION: Western Bhutan
ETHNICITY: Ngalop
DESCRIPTION: Lhakarpo Mask
MAKER: Dwha Tshering, Thimpu
CEREMONY: Cham Dance
FUNCTION: Celebration; Entertainment; Social Control
AGE: 1970s
MAIN MATERIAL: paper maché
OTHER MATERIALS: plaster; paint

The Ngalop people inhabit western and central Bhutan and are originally of Tibetan origin. The ethnic group includes an estimated 710,000 persons.  The Ngalop are primarily Tibetan Buddhist, and their masks are typically worn at monastery celebrations known as Cham Dances to bless the sowing of the grain, pray for a bountiful harvest, and entertain the public.  This mask, representing the god Lhakarpo, who accompanies the god Choekyi Gyab (also known as Yama), the Lord of Death. Lhakarpo, who lived among men, assists Choekyi Gyab in judging the souls of the dead according to their good and evil deeds to determine how they will be reincarnated. Lhakarpo is considered the incarnation of good and advocate for mankind’s virtues. Along with his demonic counterpart, Due Nagpo (or Dey Nakchuag), he dances during and acts out morality plays for the education of the audience in Buddhist theology in the Raksha Mangcham, the Dance of the Judgment of the Dead.

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TITLE: Topeng Patih Manis
TYPE: face mask
GENERAL REGION: Asia
COUNTRY: Indonesia
SUBREGION: Bali
ETHNICITY: Balinese
DESCRIPTION: Patih Manis (Prime Minister) Mask
MAKER: Unknown maker in Tegallalah
CEREMONY: Topeng Dance Drama
AGE: 1950s
MAIN MATERIAL: pule wood
OTHER MATERIALS: goat hair and leather; paint; string; rubber band

The Topeng dance drama is an important traditional entertainment and education on the island of Bali, Indonesia. Its origin can be traced to the oral history of the Balinese people and venerable palm-leaf written histories, influenced by Hinduism imported from India. The dance may have originated as early as 840 CE. The stories depicted in this drama, called Babad Dalem, tell a political history of the islands of Bali and Java as written by the court poets of the regional kings.

This specific mask represents a character known as Patih Manis, who is the prime minister in the royal court. He has a mild temperament, which is reflected in his facial expression.

For more on Balinese masks, see Judy Slattum, Masks of Bali: Spirits of an Ancient Drama (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1992).

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TITLE: Topeng Kabo Iwo
TYPE: face mask
GENERAL REGION: Asia
COUNTRY: Indonesia
SUBREGION: Bali
ETHNICITY: Balinese
DESCRIPTION: Kabo Iwo Mask
MAKER: Ida Ketut Berati, Singapadu (1967- )
CEREMONY: Topeng Dance Drama
AGE: 1987
MAIN MATERIAL: pule wood
OTHER MATERIALS: paint; pig teeth; human hair; gilded silver jewelry; semi-precious stones

The Topeng dance drama is an important traditional entertainment and education on the island of Bali, Indonesia. Its origin can be traced to the oral history of the Balinese people and venerable palm-leaf written histories, influenced by Hinduism imported from India. The dance may have originated as early as 840 CE. Most stories depicted in this drama, called Babad Dalem, tell a political history of the islands of Bali and Java as written by the court poets of the regional kings.

Other stories are folk tales. This specific mask represents a character known as Kabo IwoKabo Iwo is a cannibalistic giant and very rarely represented in Topeng drama.

For more on Balinese masks, see Judy Slattum, Masks of Bali: Spirits of an Ancient Drama (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1992).

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TITLE: Topeng Kodok
TYPE: face mask
GENERAL REGION: Asia
COUNTRY: Indonesia
SUBREGION: Bali
ETHNICITY: Balinese
DESCRIPTION: Kodok (Frog Princess) Mask
MAKER: Ida Wayan Muka, Mas Ubud (1971- )
CEREMONY: Topeng Dance Drama
AGE: 2018
MAIN MATERIAL: pule wood
OTHER MATERIALS: oil-based paint; string; rubber straps

The Topeng dance drama is an important traditional entertainment and education on the island of Bali, Indonesia. Its origin can be traced to the oral history of the Balinese people and venerable palm-leaf written histories, influenced by Hinduism imported from India. The dance may have originated as early as 840 CE. Most stories depicted in this drama, called Babad Dalem, tell a political history of the islands of Bali and Java as written by the court poets of the regional kings.

Other stories are folk tales. This specific mask represents a character known as KodokKodok is a frog princess from an eponymous story (Kodok Ngokek). In the drama, Kodok‘s parents opposing her marriage to a frog prince (Godogan), who must win their approval. The mask was carved and painted by the master craftsman I. Wayan Muka.

For more on Balinese masks, see Judy Slattum, Masks of Bali: Spirits of an Ancient Drama (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1992).

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TITLE: Topeng Bedahulu
TYPE: face mask
GENERAL REGION: Asia
COUNTRY: Indonesia
SUBREGION: Bali
ETHNICITY: Balinese
DESCRIPTION: Bedahulu (Beda Ulu) Putih Mask
MAKER: Jero Manku Pande Made Rahaejeng (Banjar Pujung Kaja Desa Talipud, 1976- )
CEREMONY: Topeng Dance Drama
AGE: 1990
MAIN MATERIAL: pule wood
OTHER MATERIALS: paint; human hair; boar tusks; string; rubber straps; foam rubber

Some Topeng dance dramas of Bali depict folk tales having their origin in Hindu scriptures, while others are indigenous to the island. This mask belongs to the latter tradition. It depicts Bedahulu, also spelled Beda Ulu, a king with the title “Astasura Ratna Bumi Banten.” He practiced black magic until he was transformed into a wild boar demon named Babi Ngepet, then he sneaked into villages at night to rob the villagers.

For more on Balinese masks, see Judy Slattum, Masks of Bali: Spirits of an Ancient Drama (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1992).

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TITLE: Rarung
TYPE: face mask
GENERAL REGION: Asia
COUNTRY: Indonesia
SUBREGION: Bali
ETHNICITY: Balinese
DESCRIPTION: Rarung Mask
MAKER: Ida Made Sutiarka, Singapadu (1974- )
CEREMONY: Calonarang
AGE: 2017
MAIN MATERIAL: pule wood
OTHER MATERIALS: leather; cotton; felt; rubber straps; oil-based paint; gilded silver jewelry; rhinestones; mirrors; gold leaf

Rarung is a witch-demon and one of the primary apprentices of Calonarang, the child-eating demon and queen of the evil witches (leyak). She leads her army against the forces of good, represented by the protective Barong and his allies. Calonarang has many affinities to the destructive Hindu god Kali, worshiped in parts of India, but she also seems to be associated with the Javanese mythical witch by the same name. Rarung appears in the Iyeg Rarung episode of the Calonarang, in which the eponymous character disputes with Minister Madri of Daha. Other apprentices include Lenda, Lendi, Gandi, Weksirsa, Jaran Guyang, and Mahesa Wedan.

For more on Balinese masks, see Judy Slattum, Masks of Bali: Spirits of an Ancient Drama (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1992).

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TITLE: Wayang Wong Laksmana
TYPE: mask
GENERAL REGION: Asia
COUNTRY: Indonesia
SUBREGION: Bali
ETHNICITY: Balinese
DESCRIPTION: Laksmana Mask
MAKER: Jero Manku Pande Made Rahaejeng (Banjar Pujung Kaja Desa Talipud, 1976- )
CEREMONY: Wayang Wong
AGE: 1990
MAIN MATERIAL: pule wood
OTHER MATERIALS: paint; goat leather and hair; mother of pearl

The Wayang Wong dance drama retells parts of the Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. These epics revolve around the god Rama and his battle with the demon king Ravana, who has abducted Rama’s wife, Sita. In the end, Rama retrieves her with the help of the wily monkey god, Hanuman.  This mask represents Laksmana, the noble brother of Rama and a close ally in his war on Ravana. It was made by the Hindu priest Made Rahaejeng and used for many years in the village of Banjar Pujung.

For more on Balinese masks, see Judy Slattum, Masks of Bali: Spirits of an Ancient Drama (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1992).

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TITLE: Topeng Bondres
TYPE: mask
GENERAL REGION: Asia
COUNTRY: Indonesia
SUBREGION: Bali
ETHNICITY: Balinese
DESCRIPTION: Bondres Mask
MAKER: Unknown
CEREMONY: Topeng Dance Drama
AGE: ca. 1980s
MAIN MATERIAL: pule wood
OTHER MATERIALS: paint

The Topeng dance drama is an important traditional entertainment and education on the island of Bali, Indonesia. Its origin can be traced to the oral history of the Balinese people and venerable palm-leaf written histories, influenced by Hinduism imported from India. The dance may have originated as early as 840 CE. The stories depicted in this drama, called Babad Dalem, tell a political history of the islands of Bali and Java as written by the court poets of the regional kings.

This specific mask represents a class of clownish characters known as bondres. The bondres character typically wears a half mask or an articulated full mask strapped to the head to allow for speaking or singing.  Unlike most Balinese masks, which portray stock characters, many bondres characters are unique representations of village types portrayed by the actor who owns the mask.

For more on Balinese masks, see Judy Slattum, Masks of Bali: Spirits of an Ancient Drama (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1992).

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TITLE: Topeng Tua At’sina
TYPE: face mask
GENERAL REGION: Asia
COUNTRY: Indonesia
SUBREGION: Bali
ETHNICITY: Balinese
DESCRIPTION: Tua At’sina (Old Man) Mask
MAKER: Ida Wayan Tangguh, Singapadu (1935-2016)
CEREMONY: Topeng Dance Drama
AGE: 2013
MAIN MATERIAL: pule wood
OTHER MATERIALS: oil-based paint; horsehair; silk thread; gold-plated silver; semi-precious stones; velvet cloth; dyed cotton string

The Topeng dance drama is an important traditional entertainment and education on the island of Bali, Indonesia. Its origin can be traced to the oral history of the Balinese people and venerable palm-leaf written histories, influenced by Hinduism imported from India. The dance may have originated as early as 840 CE. The stories depicted in this drama, called Babad Dalem, tell a political history of the islands of Bali and Java as written by the court poets of the regional kings.

This specific mask represents an important character known as tua at’sina, or distinguished old man. The tua is a versatile mask that may represent several characters, including a senior minister, or retired statesman or king. In each case, he is characterized by dignity and wisdom, tainted with pathos by the feebleness of age. The mask was carved and painted by the late master craftsman I. Wayan Tangguh.

For more on Balinese masks, see Judy Slattum, Masks of Bali: Spirits of an Ancient Drama (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1992).

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